An article about a hog farm in Owensboro, Kentucky crossed my radar today, and pinged it for all the wrong reasons. The farm, which is attempting to curb the spread of a rather horrible-sounding disease called porcine epidemic diarrhea, or PED, is in the news because its effort to protect its animals involves grinding up the intestines of dead piglets which have died from the disease and feeding the resulting “smoothie” to the adult sows.
The procedure, called “controlled exposure“, is actually standard practice. It attempts to establish “herd immunity” in an infected farm by exposing all adult animals on the farm to the disease as quickly as possible. (The virus has a mortality rate approaching 100% in suckling piglets, but most adult animals recover without incident.) Since PED is an intestinal pathogen, adult animals are most easily infected by exposure to the “intestinal tract” of “infected neonatal piglets”, which should be “sacrificed” within the first six hours of clinical signs for “maximum viral content”. Once they recover, the now-immune adult sows will pass on antibodies against the infection in their milk to future litters of piglets, keeping those piglets protected from the virus and giving the farm time to perform some serious hygienic measures and actually eradicate the virus.
Okay, so there might theoretically be a point to the farm’s actions. (And note that the swine industry is not the only one that feeds dead animal parts to live ones, either as a medical treatment or as a standard feed additive.) I do, however, note that this paper, from the site of the American Association of Swine Veterinarians, recommends that adult pigs simply be exposed to the feces of that poor doomed first wave of sick piglets, as the feces of live piglets contains up to 10,000 times the viral load of the viscera of dead piglets and is therefore a much more effective infectious agent. It is therefore not necessary to grind up the piglets or feed them to their own mothers. And besides, in the words of the above paper, “Collecting viscera is time-consuming and provides unnecessary fodder for the scrutiny of public perceptions.”
The Humane Society of the United States, which broke the original story, points out that keeping pigs in natural conditions is a more ideal way to prevent the spread of diseases such as PED than feeding dead animals to live ones. (It also notes that feeding dead animals to live ones is against state law in any case, although I cannot find that reference online at the moment.) The farm in question is a large factory farm and its sows are maintained in industry-standard gestation and/or farrowing crates, which are noted for providing just as much room as a pig needs to exist (not turn around, not move, just exist) and not an inch more, on the grounds of “protection” for the sows from each other, and for piglets from the vast and frightening bulk of their mother. The sows spend their lives crammed shoulder to shoulder in steel frame boxes the exact length and width of their bodies, churning out litters of piglets. This kind of atmosphere does not promote healthy, happy animals.
Which brings me to what pinged my radar: the name of the farm in question is Iron Maiden Hog Farm. Iron Maiden Hog Farm! I am at a loss to think of a more classless name for a pig breeding operation. I somehow cannot bring myself to believe the facility is named after the band, can you?
Posted in farming, idiocy, meat processing, news
Tagged 2014, animals, controlled exposure, farming, farrowing crates, gestation crates, herd immunity, hog farm, hogs, HSUS, Humane Society of the United States, husbandry, Iron Maiden Hog Farm, Kentucky, KY, Owensboro, PED, piglets, pigs, porcine epidemic diarrhea, smoothie, swine, viscera
Today’s water-cooler article (here passed around by the Huffington Post) concerns an undercover video from the group Mercy For Animals (whose web site is usually mercyforanimals.org, but right now it’s redirecting to walmartcruelty.com, which features the original video). The video, taken at Christensen Farms — or, rather, at one of Christensen Farms’ many subsidiary farms — shows horrific, awful things: sows confined in tiny, body-sized crates, like those used for veal calves; pigs and piglets with untreated, open sores and wounds; piglets being “euthanized” by what the farm — and the industry — euphemistically refers to as “blunt trauma” — i.e., by being swung by their hind legs and slammed into the floor head-first; and newborn piglets having their tails docked — and being castrated — with dull clippers, and without anesthesia.
What gets me is the quote from the Official Industry Representative:
“We have reviewed the video and have noted no exceptions to our company procedures or industry.” — Christensen Farms chief executive, Robert Christensen
And it’s entirely true. There’s not a thing in that video that isn’t an official pork industry procedure. Check it out — here’s the National Pork Board “Swine Care Handbook“:
- “Stalls allow the sow to stand, lie, eat and drink, but may not allow them to turn around… Varying sizes of gestation stalls can be used without negatively affecting welfare… Sows may be penned in farrowing stalls from late gestation until weaning of the piglets.” (pg 8)
- After birth, the following procedures may be performed on piglets: Clipping needle teeth; tail docking; ear notching; castration. Note that only piglets older than 14 days of age “should” receive anesthetics for these procedures. (pg 9-10)
- Under Euthanasia, they recommend the National Pork Board booklet, “On Farm Euthanasia of Swine – Options for the Producer“, which describes “blunt trauma” as “effective”, but notes that some people find it “aesthetically objectionable”. They also support “additional research on methods of neonatal euthanasia” — more ever-useful research into whether or not death is stressful. (pg 31)
- The general consensus seems to be that you have four options (pg 37) with a sick or injured pig: treat it (costs money); slaughter it for human consumption (you get paid normally for the carcass); cull it (“substandard slaughter”!) for pet food (you get less money for the carcass); or euthanize it (costs money, plus you have to dispose of the bits). Which do you think most meat producers will choose? Why pay to treat an injured animal when you can just kill it a little prematurely instead?
By not paying attention, we’ve created a space in which the things on that video are normal. They are USDA-approved. There are people who go to work every day, and cut the testicles out of squealing newborn piglets, and don’t think a thing of it, or, if they do, they don’t say anything for fear of being fired, because everyone else, especially the boss, is acting as though cutting the genitals off a conscious, unanesthetized piglet is appropriate behavior.
It’s possible to raise pigs in other ways. You can keep farrowing sows on pasture. You can use actual humane methods of euthanasia on culled piglets. You can even use anesthetic for castration, or not castrate the piglets at all. It’s just that it’s expensive to do it that way, and takes more time and effort, and that makes the meat cost more. So, ironically, we, the consumers, are actually in control of this process: As long as we’re willing to buy cheap pork (and other meat; this stuff isn’t just happening to pigs), producers will keep making it this way.
Posted in farming, meat processing, news, the Machine
Tagged 2012, bacon, blunt trauma, castration, Christiansen Farms, euthanasia, farming, farrowing crates, gestation stalls, Mercy for Animals, piglets, pigs, pork, tail docking, Wal-Mart